Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of bamboo leaf collected from agroecosystem of the Central Siwalik region, Nepal

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Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
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Doi: 10.1007/s42535-023-00761-8
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Keywords: Antioxidant, Bamboo, Fodder, Food, Siwalik


Bamboo are the fastest growing, versatile, perennial woody grasses. Naturally provided with the essential phytochemicals, various species of bamboo have even been used as medicine by the tribal people since ancient times. To elucidate the medicinal value of bamboo (Bambusa tulda and Dendrocalamus strictus), the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of their leaves were quantified by spectrophotometer, and an in-vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay was measured. The antibacterial activity was analyzed by the agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical screening in the methanol solvent extracts of D. strictus and B. tulda showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, phenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and steroids, while D. strictus exhibited steroids in the hexane extract. Both the flavonoids and phenolic content of D. strictus (65.11 ± 1.33 μg QE/ml and 16.05 µg GAE/ml) were found to be higher than that of B. tulda (57.97 ± 0.22 μg QE/ml and 11.53 µg GAE/ml). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was exhibited by D. strictus (IC50 = 26.05 ± 0.09), and remarkable antibacterial activity was shown against four pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) with a zone of inhibition ranging from 10.66 ± 0.57 to 9.0 ± 0.18 mm at a maximum concentration of 200 mg/ml. This study concludes that D. strictus and B. tulda have a wide spectrum of phytochemicals and could serve as complementary medicines along with mainstream drugs.

Antioxidant, Bamboo, Fodder, Food, Siwalik

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We acknowledge the local people of the study area for providing valuable information regarding bamboo. We appreciate the President Chure Tarai Madhesh Conservation, and Development Board (KU/CHURE/PROJECT/01) for granting approval for field work, and the Organic Farming and Natural Product Research Centre (ONRC), Kathmandu University for laboratory facilities. We express our heartfelt gratitude to the academic editor and anonymous reviewers who have went through every single detail in order to refine this research article.

Author Information

KC Bishnu Maya
Department of Biotechnology, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

Gauchan Dhurva Prasad
Department of Biotechnology, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

Khanal Sanjay Nath
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

Lamichhane Janardan
Department of Biotechnology, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal