Optimal ripening stage for maximizing fatty acid and tocopherol content, and antioxidant activity in Pistacia lentiscus fruit oil

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Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
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Doi: 10.1007/s42535-023-00805-z
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Keywords: Ripe, Unripe, n Pistacia lentiscusn , Tocopherols, Fatty acids, Antioxidant activities


Abstract


The present work stands as an endeavor to uncover the ideal maturity stage of fruits harvesting in which they exhibit the maximum content of bioactive molecules such as essential fatty acids and tocopherols. The lipid content reaches its maximum value in mature fruit. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in the oil of unripe fruit is twice that of ripe fruit. During maturity, the relative contents of oleic and palmitic fatty acids increase, while the relative content of linoleic and linolenic acids decrease. During the ripening process, the amounts of each tocopherol decrease, especially β-tocopherol, which decreases drastically. The statistical analysis showed that ripe fruit is characterized by the relatively highest contents of both C16:0 and C18:1 fatty acids, and at the same time, the relatively lowest content of C18:2 fatty acid compared to unripe fruit. Conversely, the highest antioxidant activity is obtained for unripe fruit, which is characterized by higher contents of α- and β-tocopherols. A significant decrease is noted in tocopherol content, accompanied by a decrease in antioxidant activity. The highest tocopherol content in the fruit’s oil is exclusively obtained at the initial ripening stage (immature). Therefore, harvesting fruit at this stage is highly recommended. The obtained result provides a better understanding of the use of the oils based on the ripeness of these fruits for various industrial applications.


Ripe, Unripe, n                     Pistacia lentiscusn                  , Tocopherols, Fatty acids, Antioxidant activities


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Acknowledgements



Author Information


Bakhti Koriba
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales (LSF), University Amar Teliji of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria

Mohamed Harrat
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales (LSF), University Amar Teliji of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria


Benalia Mohamed
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales (LSF), University Amar Teliji of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria


Ben Ahmed Ziyad
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales (LSF), University Amar Teliji of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria


Bombarda Isabelle
Aix Marseille Univ, Avignon Université, CNRS, IRD, IMBE, Marseille, France

Gourine Nadhir
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales (LSF), University Amar Teliji of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria
gourine.nadir@gmail.com
Yousfi Mohamed
Laboratoire des Sciences Fondamentales (LSF), University Amar Teliji of Laghouat, Laghouat, Algeria
yousfim8@gmail.com