Diversity and bioactivity of endolichenic fungi isolated from three lichen species of Arunachal Pradesh, Indo-Burma belt

*Article not assigned to an issue yet

,


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Website:www.vegetosindia.org
Pub Email: contact@vegetosindia.org
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-024-00902-7
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 152


Keywords: Lichen hosts, Endolichenic fungi, Diversity analyses, Antimicrobial activity, n Trichoderman


Abstract


Endolichenic fungi (ELF) are diverse microbial symbionts that live asymptomatically within lichen thalli. In this study, ELF was investigated from three medicinal lichen hosts namely Cryptothecia scripta, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Dirinnaria applanata from Tippi, Dahung and Dirang. Variations in the occurrence of isolates amongst the sites were determined. A total of 406 fungal isolates were isolated from the surface sterilized lichen fragments. Maximum colonization frequency of endolichenic fungi was observed in P. tinctorum (52.01%), followed by C. scripta (46.01%) and D. applanata (37.3%). The commonly isolated endolichenic fungi belonged to classes Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Deuteromycetes. Similarly, common endolichenic fungal genera found associated with the lichen hosts were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Sordaria and Trichoderma. Diversity analyses of endolichenic fungal communities indicated variations in species richness and similarity coefficient. It was observed that diversity was influenced by climatic conditions, altitudinal variations and lichen hosts. Samples collected from Dahung showed higher species richness and greater Shannon weiner s and Simpson diversity indices. Jaccard similarity index of ELF showed similarity of the isolates varied amongst the lichen hosts and in between the collection sites. Almost all the isolates determined for antimicrobial activity showed inhibitory effect against some clinically significant pathogens in varying degree. Amongst the isolates, Trichoderma sp. isolated from all the lichen host showed significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus,  Escherichia coli and  Candida albicans. The study indicated that lichens harbour diverse ELF with antimicrobial potential. Detailed investigation on their bioactive metabolites might leads to the disvovery of novel antimicrobial drugs.


Lichen hosts, Endolichenic fungi, Diversity analyses, Antimicrobial activity, n                     Trichoderman


*Get Access

(*Only SPR Members can get full access. Click Here to Apply and get access)

Advertisement

References



Arnold AE, Miadlikowska J, Higgins KL, Sarvate SD, Gugger P, Way A, Hofstetter V, Kauff F, Lutzoni F (2009) A phylogenetic estimation of trophic transition networks for ascomycetous fungi: are lichens cradles of symbiotrophic fungal diversification? Syst Biol 58(3):283–297. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syp001


Awasthi DD (1991) A key to the microlichens of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 40:1–136. https://doi.org/10.2307/1222799


Barnett HL, Hunter BB (1998) Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi. APS Press, St. Paul


Chakarwarti J, Nayaka S, Srivastava S (2023) Diversity of endolichenic fungi within lichen genus Parmotrema from India. Turk J Bot 47(4):291–306. https://doi.org/10.55730/1300-008x.2767


Deshmukh SK, Agrawal S, Prakash V, Gupta MK, Reddy MS (2020) Anti-infectives from mangrove endophytic fungi. S Afr J Bot 134:237–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.01.006


Devi D, Gogoi R, Yasmin F, Tayung K (2022) Antimicrobial activity of Endolichenic fungi isolated from Cryptothecia scripta against some human test pathogens. Res J Pharm Technol 15(5):2193–2197. https://doi.org/10.52711/0974-360x.2022.00364


Dumo ED, Espino AJ, Lina FD, Pua KD, Paguirigan JA (2023) Antibacterial potential of endolichenic fungi from lichen Usnea. Asian J Mycol 6(1):51–57


Gilman J (1957) A manual of soil fungi. Soil Sci 84(2):183


Guo LD, Huang GR, Wang Yu, Zheng WH (2003) Molecular identification of white morphotype strains of endophytic fungi from Pinus tabulaeformis. Mycol Res 107(6):680–688. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0953756203007834


Hammer Ø, Harper DA (2001) Past: paleontological statistics software package for educaton and data anlysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):1


Joshi Y, Jagadeesh Ram TAM, Singh P, Sinha GP (2014) Caloplaca indica, new lichenized Ascomycetes (Teloschistaceae) from Eastern Himalaya. India Nat Acad Sci Lett 37(6):517–519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-014-0270-3


Kekuda TP, Dhanya R, Dhatri R, Sunita CM, Onkarappa R, Vinayaka KS (2015) Radical scavenging, antimicrobial and insecticidal efficacy of Parmotrema cristiferum and Dirinaria applanata. Sci Technol Arts Res J 4(1):95–102. https://doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i1.16


Kellogg J, Huzefa Raja HA (2017) Endolichenic fungi: a new source of rich bioactive secondary metabolites on the horizon. Phytochem Rev 16(2):271–293. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-016-9473-1


Ludwig JA, Reynolds JF (1988) Statistical ecology—a primer on methods and computing. Wiley, New York, p 337


Ludwig-Müller J (2015) Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production? Biotechnol Lett 37:1325–1334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-015-1814


Majumder S, Sinha SN (2021) phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of two different species of crustose lichen from kalyani university campus, West Bengal, India


Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Hoffman M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG, Lamoureux J, da Foncesca GAB (2005) Conservation International; Washington, DC. Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. University of Chicago Press, Boston


Muggia L, Grube M (2010) Fungal composition of lichen thalli assessed by single strand conformation polymorphism. Lichenologist 42(4):461–473. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0024282909990752


Muggia L, Fleischhacker A, Kopun T, Grube M (2016) Extremotolerant fungi from alpine rock lichens and their phylogenetic relationships. Fungal Diver 76:119–142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-015-0343-8


Muggia L, Kopun T, Grube M (2017) Effects of growth media on the diversity of culturable fungi from lichens. Molecules 22(5):824. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050824


Nash TH III (2008) Lichen biology, II. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge





Orange A, James PW, White FJ (2010) Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens, 2nd edn. British Lichen Society, London


Padhi S, Tayung K (2015) In vitro antimicrobial potentials of endolichenic fungi isolated from thalli of Parmelia lichen against some human pathogens. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 4:299–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjbas.2015.11.006


Padhi S, Masi M, Cimmino A, Tuzi A, Jena S, Tayung K, Funiculosone EA (2019) a substituted dihydroxanthene-1, 9-dione with two of its analogues produced by an endolichenic fungus Talaromyces funiculosus and their antimicrobial activity. Phytochem 157:175–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.10.031


Padhi S, Masi M, Panda SK, Luyten W, Cimmino A, Tayung K, Evidente A (2020) Antimicrobial secondary metabolites of an endolichenic Aspergillus niger isolated from lichen thallus of Parmotrema ravum. Nat Prod Res 34(18):2573–2580. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1544982


Park CH, Kim KM, Elvebakk A, Kim OS, Jeong G, Hong SG (2015) Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens. J Eukaryot Microbiol 62(2):196–205. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12159


Phu NT, Cam VT, Minh NT (2023) Biological activity of the endolichenic fungi Trichoderma spp. Isolated from lichens Cryptothecia spp. and Dirinaria spp. Microbiol 92:408–417. https://doi.org/10.1134/s0026261722602093


Salin Raj P, Prathapan A, Sebastian J, Antony AK, Riya MP, Rani MP, Biju H, Priya S, Raghu KG (2014) Parmotrema tinctorum exhibits antioxidant, antiglycation and inhibitory activities against aldose reductase and carbohydrate digestive enzymes: an in vitro study. Nat Prod Res 28(18):1480–1484. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.909420


Santiago KA, Kruz TEED, Ting ASY (2021) Diversity and bioactivity of endolichenic fungi in Usnea lichens of the Philippines. Czech Mycol 73(1): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.33585/cmy.73101


Si H, Wang Y, Liu Y, Li S, Bose T, Chang R (2023). Fungal diversity associated with thirty-eight lichen species revealed a new genus of Endolichenic Fungi, Intumescentia gen. nov. (Teratosphaeriaceae). J Fungi 9(4):423. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9040423


Singh KP, Pinokiyo A (2014) New taxa of lichens from eastern India. Lichenologist 40(1):23–29. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0024282908006889


Strobel GA, Daisy B (2003) Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbial Mol Biol Rev 67:491–502. https://doi.org/10.1128/mmbr.67.4.491-502.2003


Sudheep NM, Sridhar KR (2012) Non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes in two orchids of Kaiga forest (Western Ghats). India J Res 23:453–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-012-0284-y


Suryanarayanan TS, Murali TS, Venkatesan G (2002) Occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in tropical forests across a rainfall gradient. Botany 80:818–826. https://doi.org/10.1139/b02-069


Suryanarayanan TS, Govinda Rajulu MB, Rajamani T, Tripathi M, Joshi Y (2017) Endolichenic fungi in lichens of Champawat district, Uttarakhand, Northern India. Mycol Prog 16:205–211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-016-1268-7


Suryanarayanan TS, Thirunavukkarasu N, Hariharan GN, Balaji P (2005) Occurrence of non-obligate microfungi inside lichen thalli. Sydowia-Horn 57(1):120–130. https://doi.org/10.32615/ps.2019.008


Tayung K, Sarkar M, Baruah P (2012) Endophytic fungi occurring in Ipomoea carnea tissues and their antimicrobial potentials. Braz Arch Biol Technol 55:653–660. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1516-89132012000500003


Tripathi M, Joshi Y (2015) Endolichenic fungi in Kumaun himalaya: a case study. Recent advances in lichenology. Springer, Berlin, pp 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2235-4_6


U’Ren JM, Lutzoni F, Miadlikowska J, Arnold AE (2010) Community analysis reveals close affinities between endophytic and endolichenic fungi in mosses and lichens. Microb Ecol 60(2):340–353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-010-9698-2


U’Ren JM, Lutzoni F, Miadlikowska J, Laetsch AD, Arnold AE (2012) Host and geographic structure of endophytic and endolichenic fungi at a continental scale. Am J Bot 99(5):898–914. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1100459


U’Ren JM, Riddle JM, Monacell JT, Carbone I, Miadlikowska J, Arnold AE (2014) Tissue storage and primer selection influence pyrosequencing-based inferences of diversity and community composition of endolichenic and endophytic fungi. Mol Ecol Resor 14(5):1032–1048. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.12252


Vinayaka KS, Krishnamurthy YL, Banakar S, Prashith Kekuda TR (2016). Association and variation of endophytic fungi among some macrolichens in Central Western Ghats, Southern India. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 5:115–124. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2016.506.014


Wang Y, Dai CC, Cao JL, Xu DS (2012) Comparison of the effects of fungal endophyte Gilmaniella sp. and its elicitor on Atractylodes lancea plantlets. World J Microbiol Biotech 28:575–584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-011-0850-z


Wang Y, Zheng Y, Wang X, Wei X, Wei J (2016) Lichen-associated fungal community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) affected by geographic distribution and altitude. Front Microbiol 5(7):1231. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01231


Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LK, Tedersoo L, Haelewaters D, Rajeshkumar KC, Zhao RL, Aptroot A, Leontyev DV, Saxena RK, Tokarev YS (2020) Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere Online: J Fungal Biol 11(1):1060–1456. https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8


Yang JH, Oh SY, Kim W, Woo JJ, Kim H, Hur JS (2021) Effect of isolation conditions on diversity of endolichenic fungal communities from a foliose lichen. Parmotrema Tinctorum J Fungi 7(5):335. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050335


Yang JH, Oh SY, Kim W, Hur JS (2022) Endolichenic fungal community analysis by pure culture isolation and metabarcoding: a case study of Parmotrema tinctorum. Mycobiol 50(1):55–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2022.2040112

 

 

 


Acknowledgements


Authors are grateful to Lichenology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Nowgong college (Autonomous) for the authentic classification of lichen.


Author Information


Devi Dipanjali
Mycology and Plant Pathology, Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati, India

Tayung Kumanand
Mycology and Plant Pathology, Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati, India
kumanand@gauhati.ac.in