Carbon quantum dot induced hemolysis and anti-angiogenesis in proliferating cancers with Vitis vinifera as the source material

*Article not assigned to an issue yet


Research Articles | Published:

Print ISSN : 0970-4078.
Online ISSN : 2229-4473.
Pub Email:
Doi: 10.1007/s42535-022-00454-8
First Page: 0
Last Page: 0
Views: 128

Keywords: n Vitis vinifera L., Biosynthesis, Carbon quantum dots, Phytochemicals, Anticancer activities, Hemotoxicity


Suppression of haste proliferation in cancer due to angiogenesis and nutrient craving is a long-dealt research issue in medicine and now nanomedicine-based therapies have an answer for many of such challenges. Carbon quantum dots are nanoscale carbon particles that range in size from 1 to 10 nanometers. Their small dimensions enable them to be used in various sectors, including medicine, bioimaging, and drug delivery. Our research study reports on the biological synthesis of carbon quantum dots from Vitis vinifera L. (common grape) seeds. In addition to UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy, all of these techniques have been used in characterization studies of carbon quantum dots. Phytochemicals identified in Vitis vinifera L. seeds, such as steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, phenols, and flavonoids, were used to biosynthesize carbon quantum dots. It was found that proanthocyanidin was present in grape seeds and carbon quantum dots. In this study, we assessed the anticancer properties of biogenic carbon quantum dots in vitro and also tested their hemolysis activity. In addition to their wide range of biomedical applications, synthesized carbon quantum dots have an eco-friendly, easy manufacturing process that could potentially be used in large-scale commercial production of drugs with anti-angiogenetic properties.

n                     Vitis vinifera L., Biosynthesis, Carbon quantum dots, Phytochemicals, Anticancer activities, Hemotoxicity


Adinarayana L, Chunduri A, Kurdekar A, Patnaik S, Aditha RS, Prathibha C, Kamisetti V (2017) Single-step synthesis of carbon quantum dots from coconut shell: evaluation for antioxidant efficacy and hemotoxicity. J Mater Sci Appl 3(6):83–93

Agarwal C, Sharma Y, Zhao J, Agarwal R (2000) A polyphenolic fraction from grape seeds causes irreversible growth inhibition of breast carcinoma MDA-MB468 cells by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases activation and inducing G1 arrest and differentiation. Clin Cancer Res 6(7):2921–2930

Atchudana R, Edison TNJI, Sethuramanb MG (2016) Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume. Appl Surf Sci 384:432–441

Ayoola GA, Coker HAB, Adesegun SA, Adepoju-Bello AA, Obaweya K, Ezennia EC, Atangbayila TO (2008) Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in southwestern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res 7:1019–1024

“Blood In Draksha”. BIPHA DRUG LABORATORIES Pvt Ltd. Kottayam, India

Carlo GD, Curulli A, Toro RG, Bianchini C, De Caro T, Padeletti G, Zane D, Ingo GM (2012) Green synthesis of gold–chitosan nanocomposites for caffeic acid sensing. Langmuir 28:5471–5479

Chatzimarkou A, Chatzimitakos T, Kasouni A, Sygellou L, Avgeropoulos A, Stalikas C (2017) Selective FRET-based sensing of 4-nitrophenol and cell imaging capitalizing on the fluorescent properties of carbon nanodots from apple seeds. Sens Actuators B 323:13–14

Choi J, Reipa V, Hitchins Victoria M, Goering PL, RA, Malinauskas, (2011) Physicochemical characterization and in vitro hemolysis evaluation of silver nanoparticles. Toxicol Sci 123(1):133–143

Das R, Bandyopadhyay R, PramanikP, (2018) Carbon quantum dots from natural resource: A review. Materials Today Chemistry 8:96–109

Das PM, Manhar AK, Mandal M (2014) Industrial waste-derived nanoparticles and microspheres can be potent antimicrobial and functional ingredients. J Appl Chem 2014:12

Ding Z, Wen J, Wang X, Sun R (2018) Gram-scale synthesis of single-crystalline graphene quantum dots derived from lignin biomass. Green Chem 20:1383–1390

Emad MH, Emad AS, Doha HA (2013) Phytochemical investigation and Radical Scavenging Activity of Wastes of Some Grape Varieties Grown in Egypt. Global J Pharmacol 7(4):465–473

Fengshou Wu, Wang HuifangSuK, Wong W-K, Zhu X (2017) Facile synthesis of N-rich carbon quantum dots from porphyrins as efficient probes for bioimaging and biosensing in living cells. Int J Nanomedicine 12:7375–7391

Gibbs RD (1974) Chemotaxonomy of flowering Plants. McGill Queen’s University Press Montreal, London, pp 1–3

Greil P (2015) Perspectives of nano-carbon based engineering materials. Adv Eng Mater 2(17):124–137

He Meiqin J, Zhang H, Wang Y, Kong Y, Xiao W (2018) Material and optical properties of fluorescent carbon quantum dots fabricated from lemon juice via hydrothermal reaction. Nanoscale Res Lett 175(13):1–7

Jia Xiaofang J, Li E, Wang (2012) One-pot green synthesis of optically pH-sensitive carbon dots with upconversion luminescence. Nanoscale 4(18):5572–5575

Kedage Vinayak (2007) A study of antioxidant properties of some varieties of grapes. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47(2):175–185

Khandewal KR (2008) Practical pharmacognosy. Hirsch Chan Phytochem 25:223–230

Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, Decaraman M, Aravindhan P, Padmanaban N, Krishnan MRV (2009) Phytochemical investigation on a tropical Plant. Pak J Nutri 8:83–85

Lee J (2010) Degradation kinetics of grape skin and seed proanthocyanidins in a model wine system. Food Chem 123:51–56

Luan YY, Liu ZM, Zhong JY, Yao RY, Yu HS (2015) Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on tumor vasculogenic mimicry in human triple-negative breast cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16(2):531–535

Miki Masayuki H, Tamai M, Mino Y, Yamamoto E Niki (1987) Free-radical chain oxidation of rat red blood cells by molecular oxygen and its inhibition by α-tocopherol. Arch Biochem Biophys 258(2):373–380

Mochalin N, Shenderova O, Ho D, Gogotsi Y (2012) The properties and applications of nanodiamonds. Nat Nanotechnol 1(7):11–23

Olaku OO, Ojukwu MO, Zia FZ, White JD (2015) The role of grape seed extract in the treatment of chemo/radiotherapy-induced toxicity: a systematic review of preclinical studies. Nutr Cancer 67(5):730–740

Orhan I, kupeli E, Sener B, Yesilada E (2007) Appraisal of anti-inflammatory potential of the clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L. J Ethnopharmacol 109:146–150

Rekha SS, Bhaskar M (2013) Screening and identification in vitro antioxidant activities of phytochemical compounds in ethanolic grape (VitisVinifera) seed extract. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 4(3):609–617

Richard A, Dixon D-Y, Xie Shashi B, Sharma (2005) Proanthocyanidins – a final frontier in flavonoid research. New Phytol 165(1):9–28

Ronald L, Prior L, Gu (2005) Occurrence and biological significance of proanthocyanidins in the American diet. Phytochemistry 66:2267–2273

Saifuddin N, Wong CW, Nuryasumira AA (2009) Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of bacteria with microwave irradiation. E-J Chem 6:61–70

Thakkar KN, Mhatre SS, Parikh RY (2010) Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 6(2):257–262

Treare GE, Evans WC (1985) Pharmacognosy Bailliere Tirideland, vol 17. Macmillan publisher, London, p 149

Wang Y, Aiguo Hu (2014) Carbon quantum dots: synthesis, properties, and applications. J Mater Chem C 2:6921–6939

Wang DW, Li F, Liu M, Lu GQ, Cheng HM (2008) 3D aperiodic hierarchical porous graphitic carbon material for high rate electrochemical capacitive energy storage. AngewandteChemie Int Ed 2(47):373–376

WHO (2018) Cancer

Wu Z, Xiang H, Kim T, Chun MS, Lee K (2006) Surface properties of submicrometer silica spheres modified with amino propyltriethoxysilane and phenyl triethoxysilane. J Colloid Interface Sci 304:119–124

Yuan W, Gu Y, Li L (2012) Green synthesis of graphene/Ag nanocomposites. Appl Surf Sci 261:753–758

Zhang H, Zhang X, Sun X, Ma Y (2013) Shape-controlled synthesis of nano carbons through direct conversion of carbon dioxide. Sci Rep 1(3):3534–2013



Author Information

Parvathy C. R.
Department of Nanotechnology, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, India

Praseetha P. K.
Department of Nanotechnology, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, India