Cold Tolerance during Reproductive Growth of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum): Genetic Variation in Flower Production and Pod Set
Sharma Pushp*, Singh Guriqbal
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India
*Corresponding author Email: email@example.com
Prevalence of low temperatures during chickpea growth particularly reproductive phase is a common phenomenon in northern region of India. Genotypes having early flowering were badly affected by the cold conditions. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in the three winter seasons of 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 in the loamy sand soils of Ludhiana, to evaluate seven chickpea genotypes for cold tolerance and identify the sources of cold tolerance. ICCV96029 and ICCV96030 were early flowering genotypes whereas PDG84-16, IPC94-94, ICCV88503, ICCV88506, Phule96006 were late flowering. The total number of flowers produced per plant during cold spell ranged from -78.8–103.7 in early flowering genotypes, whereas in the late flowering genotypes these were 23.6–39.4. Pollen fertility was 64.6–93.3% in ICCV96029 and ICCV96030 and varied from 62.0–82.4% in rest of the genotypes. Pollen fertility varied with the fluctuations in temperature; however, if the minimum temperature remained less than 3°C for 3 consecutive days, pollen tube growth was hindered. Two early maturing genotypes ICCV96029 and ICCV96030 showed good pod set in cold spells, but seed growth was limited. Genotypes differed significantly in grain yield. Phule96006 was the highest yielder and seems to be cold tolerant whereas PDG84-16 and IPC94-94 escaped cold spell.